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Germany

Germany is represented by four coins, although only one of them mentions the International Year of Astronomy 2009 explicitly.

The obverse of the first medal shows two from the three Kepler's laws. The first Keplerian low states the the planets are moving around the Sun on an elliptic path, and in one of the focal point of the ellipse resides the Sun. The second Kepler's low states the planets sweep equal area of the eclipse in equal time. That is when they are moving close to the Sun they move faster, and they are sweeping wider area. This fact clearly can be seen from the shape of shaded and empty sectors displayed on the coin. Legend: "400 JAHRE KEPLERSCHE GESETZE 2009", i. e. 400 year of Kepler's Laws. Only 5000 pieces were issued from this 36 mm diameter, 22.5 gram weight 999 silver coin.

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The reverse shows coats of arms of German states. Legend above is: "DEUTSCHLAND", below is: "EINIGKEIT" "RECHT" "FREIHEIT", i. e. unity right liberty.

The second coin is an official 10 Euro commemorative coin of Germany. On its obverse the right facing silhouette of Kepler is visible. Left from it a drawing is visible extracted from Kepler's logbook, representing the path of Mars. Legend is similar to above: "400 JAHRE KEPLERSCHE GESETZE".

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The reverse shows the coats of arm of Germany, the eagle and the face value and the issuer's name: "BUNDESREPUBLIC DEUTSCHLAND" "EURO 10" "2009". The coin was made of 925 fine silver, its diameter is 34mm, its weight is 22 gram, and 9000 pieces were issued.

On the third medal again Kepler is visible among the Sun and the planets. In the legend above the zodiac signs were placed, while below we can find the same legend: "400 JAHRE KEPLERSCHE GESETZE".

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The theme of the reverse of the third medal is very similar to the first one. But instead of the coats of arms the map of Germany is displayed. The similar legend above is: "DEUTSCHLAND", below is: "EINIGKEIT UND RECHT UND FREIHEIT", i. e. unity and right and liberty.

The common of the three coins above is that they don't mention the IYA2009. This may be because officially only the occasion of using a telescope for astronomy by Galileo Galilei was mentioned as a reason of IYA2009. However the astronomers' community treat Kepler's work equal important, and therefore I list these coins here also.

The obverse of the fourth - and the only one naming explicitly the IYA2009 - coin displays Galileo Galilei and his famous "double" telescope. Some scattered stars and a gemstone in front of Galilei's forehead can be found. Unfortunately at the moment I have no information on the material of this gemstone, neither the material of the medal itself, except that it is made of some white metal, it weights 12.4 gram, has a diameter 35.3 mm. Also the issuer is unknown, only from the German text I deduct that it is from Germany. Legend above is: "INTERNATIONALES JAHR DER ASTRONOMIE 2009", i. e. the International Year of Astronomy 2009 and below is: "400 JAHRE TELESKOP - GALILEO GALILEI 1609", i. e. 400 years of telescope, Galileo Gelilei 1609.

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The reverse show the surface of a cratered planet or the Moon, along with some stars.